OUR INSPIRATION has been the cell shape variation and increasing roughness along tumor progression. Transformed cells are identified by histology and their stronger/intensive staining in comparison with surrounding normal tissues/cells. This will be depicted by different color schemes.
Normal tissue and cells at different magnification to appreciate tissue organization and cell layers, as well as homogenous distribution of colors
Normal cells are very well organized in layers
Tumor sections capture by microscope showing how tumor cells grow and invade the surroundings. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining allows to characterize tissue architecture. Indeed, tissue disorganization is widely used as the first prognostic tool.
Tumor cells can be identified by their mutations using specific markers. In the current image, AKT phosporilation allow us to identify tumor cells (brown cells in the right panels). These images also show how tumor cells start invanding the surrounding and the tissue architecture has been disrupted.
At advace stages of the disease tumor cells are disseminated in the body and can be found in distal regions, such as these prostate cancer cells growing in the bone. Prostate specific markers allowed theirs identification.